TGF Beta 1 Antibody – Controlling Many Cellular Functions

TGF beta 1 antibody – Transforming Growth Factor (TGF) beta 1, also known as anti-Camurati Engelmann disease antibody, is a polypeptide member of the Transforming growth factor beta super family of cytokines. Transforming Growth Factor 1 is a secreted protein that performs many cellular functions such as controlling cell growth, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis as well as a key role in wound healing and healthy cartilage maintenance.

The Transforming Growth Factor β 1 protein is found throughout the body and plays a role in development before birth, the formation of blood vessels, the regulation of muscle tissue and body fat development, wound healing, and immune system function. In addition, it interacts with several types of leukocytes such as T-cells, B-cells, macrophages and monocytes and plays a key role in the control of the immune system; most of the cells this cytokine regulates also secrete it. Accordingly, a lot of cells have TGFB receptors, and the protein positively and negatively regulates many other growth factors. T.G.F. β 1 is particularly abundant in tissues that make up the skeleton in addition to the extracellular matrix, highly expressed in bone and abundantly expressed in articular cartilage and chondrocytes.

Some T.G.F. β 1 gene mutations are acquired during a person’s lifetime and are present only in certain cells. These uninherited somatic mutations in TGF beta 1 gene cause alterations in the expression of the TGF β 1 protein and are associated with certain types of cancers as well as certain bone disorders. The altered protein expression may enhance several cancer related events such as proliferation, cell motility, and the development of new blood vessels that nourish a growing tumor. The TGF beta 1 protein is over expressed in certain types of prostate cancers. Altered Transforming Growth Factor beta 1 expression has also been found in breast, colon, lung, and bladder cancers. Additionally, research has shown that the TGF beta 1 antibody can operate as a biomarker and an analeptic target for cardiovascular disease, also known as heart disease. This means, using the TGF beta 1 antibody can help individuals that suffer from heart disease to determine the severity of their condition.

Aberrant Expression is also implicated in osteoarthritis, a degenerative joint disease leading to joint pain, tenderness, locking and sometimes joint effusion (increased amount of intra-articular fluid). This form of arthritis is the most common and the leading cause of chronic disability in the United States, and is affecting millions in both the United Kingdom and the United States.

Defects in T.G.F. β 1 are the cause of Camurati-Engelmann disease (CE); also known as progressive diaphyseal dysplasia 1. CE is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by hyperostosis and sclerosis of the diaphyses of long bones. The disease typically presents in early childhood with pain, muscular weakness and waddling gait, and in some cases other features such as exophthalmos, facial paralysis, hearing difficulties and loss of vision.

The host of TGF beta 1 antibody is a rabbit, and is for research purposes only. The tested applications are WB (western blot), IHC-P (immunohistochemistry), and P-Elisa.

Beyond The Obvious: Game-Changing Innovation by Phil McKinney – Neutralizing Corporate Antibodies

“Innovation” is one of the biggest buzzwords of twenty-first century business vernacular. Phil McKinney, author of the new book, “Beyond The Obvious: Killer Questions That Spark Game-Changing Innovation,” presents an in-depth account of what it takes to be truly innovative. He admits that innovation is hard work; and no organization gets it 100 percent right. But, with a disciplined approach, anyone can become more innovative.

McKinney provides a set of Killer Questions that any company can use to hone their innovative mindset. Before you can use those questions, he says you must address your industry and company assumptions, manage the inevitable jolts and neutralize the corporate antibodies. Here, the focus is corporate antibodies.

Corporate antibodies are analogous to the antibodies in our immune system, which attack and destroy possibly harmful foreign objects. “Antibodies” in your organization identify and neutralize forces that threaten to destabilize a company. Much like an organism’s antibodies can damage the very thing they seek to protect (i.e. when they cause the body to reject a transplanted organ); corporate antibodies can stunt a company’s growth by squelching fresh ideas and badly needed unconventional thinkers. McKinney defines four types of corporate antibodies:

1. The Ego Response.

  • “Oh, I already thought of that a long time ago.”
  • “I have something better.”

To get their support, you need to appeal to their ego and solidify their need for personal validation. The key is to show you’re not challenging them. Put their suggestions to work in your idea and pitch. Acknowledge that those suggestions came from them. You’re now giving them a sense of ownership in the concept; and they’ll be more inclined to support your idea.

2. The Fatigued Response.

  • “You’ll never get approval.”
  • “We tried that before.”
  • “It won’t fit our operation.”

This corporate antibody may have pitched ideas of their own, only to have them dismissed. They’re burned out and only half listen to new ideas. As you describe your idea, his biases automatically appear, drawing connections between your new concept and old ideas that didn’t work.

You need to draw out their biases, understand what old experiences they remember; and devise a way to demonstrate that those things aren’t applicable to your new idea. Keep the dialogue going. Ask questions and engage them in your idea by asking their opinions.

Every question you can ask draws the corporate antibody closer to supporting you. They may not realize it, but they’re slowly becoming invested in your idea. You’ll discover an opportunity for a direct question about the viability of your idea. One acknowledgement from them that there is an opportunity that didn’t exist before and you’re ally-bound.

3. The No-Risk Response.

  • “Not enough return on investment.”
  • “We can’t afford that.”

This corporate antibody response understands that doing nothing might not advance their career or company status, but it also avoids any downside risks. “No-risk” is stagnancy that can be hard to diffuse.

The most effective way to gain support is to demonstrate that there is less risk than they think. Explain that supporting the first step of your idea will be low-risk, low-cost and doesn’t commit them to moving on to a bigger investment. Determine how you get people comfortable with risk. Present your concept in small steps. Asking for a few thousand dollars to prove that your customer really needs the product will garner a yes faster than asking for the full budget (and full risk) all at once.

McKinney highlights a subtle truth about innovation. “Sometimes there is no other way around a “no-risk” corporate antibody than a slightly cunning interpretation of the rules, or selective hearing when you’re told no.” He doesn’t advocate lying or deceit, but he says, you’ll find more people who feel empowered to say no than people who feel they’re empowered to say yes. “Don’t lie, but don’t always wait for permission, either. If you believe in your idea and you’re willing to take a risk, put your plan in motion. You can always ask for forgiveness later.”

4. The Comfort Response.

  • “We’ve always done it this way.”
  • “Our customers like it this way.”
  • “Don’t rock the boat.”

Corporate antibodies that stubbornly believe change isn’t desirable or feasible may be confined to outdated thinking about what success looks like. It’s important to understand that while your core mission may stay the same, the way you define success in achieving it may change.

McKinney concludes that corporate antibodies believe that they’re working in the best interest of their employer and customers. They believe they’re serving as a gatekeeper- the last line of defense against people or ideas that might damage the organization. To become allies, you need to convince them that you aren’t a threat and that your idea actually aligns with, and complements their ideals.

He also says “nearly all great ideas require nerve, vision, and guts to get in motion.” If you can’t develop the skills to work around your in-house adversaries, you’ll struggle to ever get your ideas and innovations launched.

Lastly, if you’re constantly shot down by corporate antibodies, you’ll need to decide if being held back by these people is acceptable, or, do you make a bold move to an organization that will support your ideas.

For a list of the World’s 50 Most Innovative Companies, as ranked by Fast Company, visit: http://www.fastcompany.com/most-innovative-companies/2012/full-list.

Laughter – The Natural Antibody That Burns Calories

For some people who want to stay healthy without getting tired of doing hard exercises or spending a lot of money on medicine, laughing may be the alternative activity they have to choose.

Laughing is almost the same as aerobics exercise, which benefit especially the upper part of the body. It is a work out for diaphragm, abdominal, respiratory, facial, shoulders, back muscles and even legs. Moreover, it makes digestion and absorption system functioning better. According to some studies, laughter can burn calories equal to walking or biking.

A study conducted at Vanderbilt University demonstrated that 10 to 40 percent calories are burnt through 10 to 15 minutes laughing. In fact, new research published in the International Journal of Obesity said that laughing is the best medicine for a weight problem.

One thing for sure, laughing needs no cost all. It is a natural antibody or in other words priceless medicine. The same as smiling which can increase endorphin hormone, so as laughing can strengthen the immune system and increase natural killer cell levels that prevent the growth of cancer cells. Laughing also makes a person’s body more relaxed and thereafter reduces problems related to high blood pressure, heart attack or stroke, depression, anxiety, stress, arthritis, and ulcer.

Most of the time, laughing is also an exercise for the heart and lungs. It can increase the amount of oxygen getting through our body. Thus, laughter is believed to stimulate both sides of brain and enhance the brain function related to retaining information and solving problem.

Believe it or not, children laugh more than adult. This is pathetic because adult is the one who has more problems. That is why they need more laughter to overcome them. Or is it because they laugh less thus they have more problems?

New Cancer Treatment Techniques: Antibody Drug Conjugate & Peptide Drug Conjugations

The efforts to find a cure for cancers have been ongoing since long time ago. Yet, no effective methods or drugs are discovered by now. Scientists and doctors never stop their steps along this journey with the pains and sufferings of cancer patients echoing in their minds. But with the advance in science and technology, new emerging techniques do make their presence and share their role in the battles against various cancers.

Among them bioconjugation is worthy of mentioning here. As its name suggests, bioconjugation is basically a technique used to form a stable covalent link between at least two different molecular parts of biological origin. Through this technique new chemicals can be made or some biomolecules are able to take on certain personalized new looks. Despite its limitations in specificity, stability and bioavailability, bioconjugation is widely used in biomedical researches given its great potential in cancer treatment.

Of course, when talking about new cancer treatment techniques, we cannot miss antibody drug conjugates and peptide drug conjugates. With application of them, new drugs to cure cancer may be discovered.

Antibody Drug Conjugates (ADCs)

ADCs are virtually complex molecules that are composed of an antibody linked to a biologically active cytotoxic payload or drug. Ever since the advent of ADC technique, it has gained remarkable attention and gradually revolutionize the field of cancer chemotherapy.

What makes it stand out among all breakthroughs in the biopharmaceutical industry is ADCs intend to target and kill exclusively the cancer cells and thus spares healthy cells. This differentiates itself from the conventional treatments which will also damage healthy tissues during dose escalation.

Peptide Drug Conjugations

Peptides are considered as an important type of molecules to be derived using the bioconjugation technique. Peptide drug conjugate holds a promising stance in targeted cancer therapy as it enables the delivery of therapeutic agents by providing distinct advantage of improving therapeutic potential of drugs. Through synthesis and modification of different categories of peptides, this technique will exert considerable impact on academic research, clinical diagnostics, the production of therapeutics and more.

Research is ongoing for the development of new drug delivery systems for targeted drug delivery. Peptides derived from sequence of cell surface proteins have shown potent binding affinity to the target cell surface receptors. Equipping peptides-drug conjugates with target cell specific ligands like EGF and RGD peptides can provide a solution for selective and targeted delivery.

With the discovery and application of such new techniques, cancer may be cured in the near future.