TGF beta 1 antibody – Transforming Growth Factor (TGF) beta 1, also known as anti-Camurati Engelmann disease antibody, is a polypeptide member of the Transforming growth factor beta super family of cytokines. Transforming Growth Factor 1 is a secreted protein that performs many cellular functions such as controlling cell growth, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis as well as a key role in wound healing and healthy cartilage maintenance.
The Transforming Growth Factor β 1 protein is found throughout the body and plays a role in development before birth, the formation of blood vessels, the regulation of muscle tissue and body fat development, wound healing, and immune system function. In addition, it interacts with several types of leukocytes such as T-cells, B-cells, macrophages and monocytes and plays a key role in the control of the immune system; most of the cells this cytokine regulates also secrete it. Accordingly, a lot of cells have TGFB receptors, and the protein positively and negatively regulates many other growth factors. T.G.F. β 1 is particularly abundant in tissues that make up the skeleton in addition to the extracellular matrix, highly expressed in bone and abundantly expressed in articular cartilage and chondrocytes.
Some T.G.F. β 1 gene mutations are acquired during a person’s lifetime and are present only in certain cells. These uninherited somatic mutations in TGF beta 1 gene cause alterations in the expression of the TGF β 1 protein and are associated with certain types of cancers as well as certain bone disorders. The altered protein expression may enhance several cancer related events such as proliferation, cell motility, and the development of new blood vessels that nourish a growing tumor. The TGF beta 1 protein is over expressed in certain types of prostate cancers. Altered Transforming Growth Factor beta 1 expression has also been found in breast, colon, lung, and bladder cancers. Additionally, research has shown that the TGF beta 1 antibody can operate as a biomarker and an analeptic target for cardiovascular disease, also known as heart disease. This means, using the TGF beta 1 antibody can help individuals that suffer from heart disease to determine the severity of their condition.
Aberrant Expression is also implicated in osteoarthritis, a degenerative joint disease leading to joint pain, tenderness, locking and sometimes joint effusion (increased amount of intra-articular fluid). This form of arthritis is the most common and the leading cause of chronic disability in the United States, and is affecting millions in both the United Kingdom and the United States.
Defects in T.G.F. β 1 are the cause of Camurati-Engelmann disease (CE); also known as progressive diaphyseal dysplasia 1. CE is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by hyperostosis and sclerosis of the diaphyses of long bones. The disease typically presents in early childhood with pain, muscular weakness and waddling gait, and in some cases other features such as exophthalmos, facial paralysis, hearing difficulties and loss of vision.
The host of TGF beta 1 antibody is a rabbit, and is for research purposes only. The tested applications are WB (western blot), IHC-P (immunohistochemistry), and P-Elisa.