Overcome Female Infertility – What is Antisperm Antibody Test?

As we mentioned in previous articles, infertility is defined as inability of a couple to conceive after 12 months of unprotected sexual intercourse or can not carry the pregnancy to term. It effects over 5 millions couple alone in the U. S. and many times more in the world. Because of unawareness of treatments, only 10% seeks help from professional specialist. In this article, we will discuss what male infertility antisperm antibody test is.

I. Definition
The antisperm antibody test is one of procedure which helps to see the antigens of the immune system function toward sperm invasion through blood test. If the immune system recognized or not the sperm as the foreign object, it will produces white blood cells to kill them.

II. Procedure
Blood is withdrawn from a vein in the arm of the infertile female in the clinic laboratory and is to analyzed by immunologic infertility specialist.

III. Diagnosis
The test uses a sample of sperm and adds a substance that binds only to the test sperm. Semen sample causes the immune system response in either the man’s or woman’s body. If there is an injure somewheres in the body or inflammation caused by irregular cell adhesion or implants such as endometriosis or sexual transmitted diseases infection which may stimulate the production of white blood. The white blood cells can damage or kill sperm if a high number of sperm antibodies is found leading to immunologic infertility.

Women may have an allergic reaction to her partner’s semen and make sperm antibodies leading to faultily recognizing the sperm as foreign invasion, thereby producing high a mount of antibody to kill them leading to infertility. This kind of immune response is not fully understood and happens only to small percentage of infertility couple. It is said that this kind of abnormal function can be treated by controlling the allergic reaction if the causes are found.

TLR2 Antibody – A Transmembrane Cell-Surface Receptor

TLR2 antibody – Toll like receptor 2, which is also known as TLR-2, or CD282 is a transmembrane protein that is encoded by the TLR2 gene. This surface protein is present on a number of leukocytes, white blood cells, such as macrophages, microglia, schwann cells, dendritic cells, B-cells and T-cells.

This transmembrane protein plays an important role in the recognition of foreign bodies and the innate immune response to those pathogens. Toll receptors are activated by highly specific pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), which are specific to bacterial, fungal, viral and certain endogenous substances. As a result, the TLR2, which are single pass trans-membrane cell-surface receptors, are a key function in the activation of innate immunity.

In most cases, the interaction between receptor and PAMPs will result in the phagocytosis of bound molecules and in cellular activation. This will activate macrophages in addition to dendritic cells to assume non-specific immune defense and cytokine release. Moreover, it will activate B-cells to begin antibody production and formation of pathogen specific antibodies.

Toll like receptors (TLR) are well preserved from drosophila to humans and are structurally and functionally similar. They both recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), which are expressed on infectious agents. It then creates cytokines, which are necessary for the progress of efficient immunity. Consequently, the mixture of different TLRs exhibits different patterns of appearance.

TLR2 is one of the most important receptor of the innate immune system and is an element of the defense against microbial organisms. TLR2 is activated through both internal and external signals (microbial cell wall components). The TLR2 has an important function in pathogen detection for inflammatory conditions that include ischemia reperfusion injury, cancer, autoimmune diseases, diabetes, and is relevant to Alzheimer’s disease.

One of the most common neurological diseases is Alzheimer’s, which is the most common form of dementia and accounts for up to 80% of all cases. The symptoms cause problems with thinking, memory and behavior and usually develop over time in old age, and eventually start to have negative consequences on daily lives. The majority of people with Alzheimer’s disease are 65 and over. They will ultimately not have the capacity to have a dialogue with anybody such as family or friends, and unable to react to their environment. Therefore, it could potentially lead them into dangerous situations if the proper care or treatment was not provided for them. Those that are unfortunate to be diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease live on average eight years after they are diagnosed, although this can depend on their health conditions. Moreover, Alzheimer’s disease is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States of America. Thus, TLR2 antibodies have become a staple of any research lab investigating causes and possible treatments for this devastating disease.

The antibody can be tested on a range of applications such as WB (western blot), IHC-P (immunohistochemistry), and P-ELISA. This is used to test the antibody on a large selection of model species such as mouse, rat, sheep, cow, dog, chicken, pig, and Human.

P53 Antibody – The Multi-Cellular Organism

P53 antibody – P53, also identified as tumor protein 53, is a tumor suppressor protein that is encoded by the TP53 gene in humans.

The gene is highly conserved in vertebrates with sequences found in invertebrates showing only a distant resemblance to mammalian forms of the gene. P53 is crucial in multi-cellular organisms where it plays a crucial role in DNA damage repair and anticancer function. During the DNA synthesis phase of cellular division in the event of DNA damage P53 is activated. P53 arrests the cell cycle in the S-phase of the cycle and activate DNA repair proteins to repair any damages before allowing the cell cycle to continue. Moreover, P53 can also initiate apoptosis, programmed cell death, if DNA damage cannot be repaired, preserving genomic stability.

Additionally, it also becomes active if factors such as stress, (osmotic) shock, and deregulated oncogene appearance occur. P53 also functions in the inhibition of angiogenesis, which is the formation of new blood vessels that is crucial in the growth and metastasis of cancer and tumors.

The mouse monoclonal antibody can be used to visualize the P53 tumor antigen quantities in a broad selection of transformed cells. In addition, the protein is visible in many dynamic proliferating non transformed cells.

However, it is undetectable or present at low levels in resting cells. This protein induces cell cycle arrest or apoptosis in response to sublethal or severe DNA damage, respectively, by differential transcription of target genes and through transcription-independent apoptotic functions. The P53 protein contains 393 amino acids, and the human P53 tumor antigen is located at band 17p13.

P53 mutations or deletions play a crucial role in the development of cancer, as well as cancer diagnostics and research. P53 malfunctions are common in pancreatic cancer, in addition to Li-Fraumeni syndrome. Li-Fraumeni syndrome is caused by the damage in the P53 tumor suppressor gene. If an individual is diagnosed with this syndrome then they are 25 times more likely to develop a malignant tumor by the age of 50. This syndrome is characterized by several different cancers i.e. breast cancer, and acute leukemia. Diagnosis of Li-Fraumeni syndrome includes if the patient has been diagnosed with sarcoma below the age of 45, which is a cancer that arises from transformed cells of mesenchymal origin. Other possible developments can lead from first or second degree family members that have had cancer at a young age.

Recommendations for Li-Fraumeni syndrome includes avoiding radiation therapy, which can diminish the risk of secondary radiation induced malignancies. In addition, other prerequisite proposals that have to be done to prevent Li-Fraumeni syndrome are annual physical examination, for women to start breast cancer monitoring from age 25, and to consult with a physician if any illnesses or symptoms arises.

The P53 antibody host is from a mouse, and can be tested on other species for research use only. The P53 antibody can be tested on a range of applications, such as WB (western blot), IHC-P (immunohistochemistry), and P-Elisa.

DIY Antibody Labeling

For Researchers, using techniques like flow cytometry, Western Blotting, ELISA and immunohistochemistry, antibodies are used to quantify antigens in complex biological samples. These days, it is possible to measure hundreds of antigens simultaneously with multiplex immunoassay technologies. Generally all of these antibody-based detection techniques require a label (antibody labelling) of some description which allows measurability.

The vast majority of antibodies that are available commercially are not labelled, which means they are not quantifiable. Generally only a small number of antibodies, those deemed commercially valuable by the antibody manufacturers, are available in conjugated/labelled form. Also, for the antibodies that are available in conjugated form, it is generally for a small range labels. This can be very restricting when it comes to experimental design.

Using unlabeled antibodies comes with several inherent problems particularly with multiplex assays. For Indirect detection, which commonly uses a secondary antibody with the required label, it is difficult to create a panel of secondary reagents with the desired selectivity and lack of unwanted cross reactions. These problems are overcome, however, by covalently attaching the label directly to the primary antibody, reducing the complexity of immunoassays and quickly and simply producing a flow cytometry antibody ready for analysis.

Historically, antibody labelling has involved chemical modification and has been conducted by commercial organisations with specialist knowledge of the required techniques. However, due to significant advances in antibody labeling technologies, this once difficult, time consuming and costly procedure can now be performed by anyone in the lab without the need for specialist training or experience.