Overcome Infertility – Treating Anti-Sperm Antibody in Conventional Perspective

As we mentioned in previous article, conventional medicine plays an important role and most of the time is the first treatment for a couple who for what ever reason cam not conceive after 1 year of unprotected sexual intercourse or can not carry the pregnancy to full term. With the advance of medical technology, conventional medicine has proven record in treating infertility but with some side effects. In this article, we will discuss Laparotomy microsurgery: definition, effects, side effects and risk of conventional medication in treating hormone imbalance.

1. Definition
Antisperm antibody can be produced by either partner. It is defined as a certain class of protein attaches themselves to the sperm, causing other cells in the immune system to attack them, leading to low quality sperm in men and effecting the ability of sperm to fertilize the egg in women.

2. Causes
Since the protein can attach to the sperm, it inhibits the sperm function in egg fertilization
a) Blood contamination
A Man may produce antisperm antibody, if he injures to his testicle or due to surgery such as undescent testicle surgery, testicle biopsy, testicle torsion, etc.
b) Break down of the test barrier
Normally sperm are kept separate from blood and immune system. If there are damage to the barrier for what ever reason, the immune system may recognize the sperm as the foreign intrusion and destroy them.
c) When it is formed
For what ever reasons, antisperm antibody can be formed due to infection, inflammation or medicine, etc. If it exist, it may interferes with quality of sperm in men and make cervical mucus hostile to sperm invasion, leading to infertility.

3. Treatments
a) Corticosteroids
Corticosteroids is a drug which normally used to treat any swelling condition such as skin problems, severe allergies, asthma, and arthritis. It works effectively in reducing the production of antisperm antibody, but it causes serious side effect including make infections harder to treat, nervousness, restlessness, sleep problems, and indigestion.
b) Sperm treatments that use for ertificila insemination such as rapid washing and freeze-thawing.

Overcome Infertility – What is Anti Thyroid Antibodies in Conventional Perspective

As we mentioned in previous article, conventional medicine plays an important role and most of the time is the first treatment for a couple who for what ever reason cam not conceive after 1 year of unprotected sexual intercourse or can not carry the pregnancy to full term. Immune system plays an important role in protect our body against forming of free radicals and bacteria and virus, but for what ever reasons, sometimes the immune system attack sperm in the women reproductive organs or sperm in the testes in men, leading to infertility In this article, we will discuss how anti thyroid antibodies affects fertility in conventional perspective.

1. Definition

Anti Thyroid Antibodies are defined as abnormal function of antibodies produced by immune system act directly against the thyroid gland. It is caused by inflammation of the thyroid gland, leading to abnormal production of certain antithyroid antibodies such as antithyroglobulin and antimicrosomal, causing miscarriage by attacking the placental or fetal tissues.

2. Causes

a) Hypothyroidism
Study show that women with low levels of thyroid hormone have high levels antithyroid antibody compared with other women who do not.

b) Aging
We all know, as we age, the immune system is no longer function as it should, leading to infection and inflammation resulting in increasing the risk of over production of antithyroid antibody.

c) Infection and inflammation
Infection or inflammation thyroid gland or other part of the body may elevate the levels of antithyroid antibody as the antibody made by protein of the immune system become abnormal and attack the thyroid gland tissues

d) Medication.
Medication use such as cholestyramine, seizure medication and antibiotic may interferes with the absorption of levothyroxine or speeds the breakdown of levothyroxine, leading to hypothyroidism resulting in increasing the risk of antithyroid antibody production.

3. Treatments

a) Selenium supplement
Since the antioxidant properties of selenoproteins help prevent cellular damage from free radicals, it also helps to increase immune system in regulating the production of our body antibody including antithyroid antibody.

b) Antithyroid medication
Antithyroid medication such as desiccated thyroid, eltroxin and synthroid help to increase the the levels of thyroid function by the thyroid gland thereby, affecting the immune system resulting in lessening the risk of antithyroid antibody production.

c) Lower levels of cholesterol
Some researcher found that decreasing the levels of cholesterol in the blood stream may help to reduce the risk of hypothyroidism thereby, reducing the risk of elevating the levels of antithyroid antibody

4. Side effects of the medication

a) Heart palpitations.
b) Nervousness.
c) Insomnia.
d) Shaking
e) Too much weight loss.
f) Osteoporosis if it is taken for a long time
g) Etc.

Antibody Dependent Cell-Mediated Immunity

Hypersensitivity reactions mediated by antibodies fall into different types. These are: anaphylactic reaction, cytotoxic hypersensitivity, Immune complex mediated tissue damage, T-Cell-mediated hypersensitivity, stimulatory hypersensitivity and antibody dependent cell-mediated cytotoxic mechanism (ADCC). What are they?

Type 1: Anaphylactic reaction

Initial introduction of the antigen (e.g, penicillin) leads to the production of cytotoxic antibodies (mainly IgE) in sensitive persons. These are attached to the surface of mast cells.

On subsequent exposure, the antigen reacts with the preformed antibodies, causing mast cell degranulation and release of histamine serotonin, and slow reacting substance (SRSA). This may lead to asthma due to broncho-constriction, or anaphylactic shock due to wide-spread capillary dilatation.

Allergens such as pollens, house dust and fungi react with cell bound IgE of the respiratory tract leading to bronchial asthma or hay fever. Allergens from food may cause urticaria.

Type I hypersensitivity reaction occurs within 30 minutes of exposure to the allergens. Such reaction can be abolished by drugs like adrenaline and disoduim cromoglycate which prevent the release of histamine. Antihistamines compete with the released histamine for effector sites. Repeated introduction of the allergen in small doses results in hyposensitization.

Type II: Cytotoxic hypersensitivity

Certain drugs may complex with membrane proteins of blood cells leading to production of auto-antibodies. These antibodies can lyse the blood cells through the action of complement. Hemolytic anemia caused by alpha methyl dopa, agranulocytosis produced by amidopyrine and thrombocytopenia induced by chlorothiazides are examples of this mechanism.

Type III: Immune complex mediated tissue damage

The continued presence of antigen causes persistent antibody production. Antigen antibody complexes form and circulate in the blood. These heavy molecules are entrapped in the blood vessels, renal glomeruli, lungs, skin and joints.

Complement system is activated through the alternate pathway. The complement degradation products attract polymorphs and macrophages and an inflammatory reaction sets in with resultant damages to the tissues. Platelet aggregation occurs and these microthrombi lead to vascular occlusion and ischemia. If the antibody is in excess, the complexes are rapidly precipitated and tend to be localized at the site of entry of antigen. This leads to Arthus type reaction. If an antigen is injected intradermally into a hyper-immuned animal, erythema and edema occur at the site of the injection.

This reaction reaches a peak in 3-8 hours, and is referred to as intermediate type skin reaction. Farmer’s lung is the classical example of localized type III reaction. On the other hand, if antigen is in excess, soluble complexes are formed which precipitate in all tissues, giving rise to the serum sickness type of reaction. The lumpy granular precipitates seen in renal glomeruli in post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis are due to systemic type III reaction.

Type IV: T-cell-mediated hypersensitivity reaction

This is also called delayed type hypersensitivity in which a slow erythematous indurated lesion develops after an intradermally injected tuberculin (or similar antigen) on an individual.

Stimulatory hypersensitivity

Thyroid cells are normally stimulated by TSH through a membrane associated receptor. The long acting thyroid stimulator (LATS) which is an antibody against some components if the receptor also produces TSH like activity but it is more prolonged. The continued stimulation of LATS leads to hyperthyroidism. Similarly, anti-lymphocyte globulin is stimulatory to lymphocytes in appropriate conditions.

Type VI: Antibody dependent cell-mediated cytotoxic mechanism (ADCC)

This mechanism does not require complement activity. The effector cells are neither T nor B cells but are called K cells. The specificity of this reaction resides in the antibody molecule. Only very small amounts of antibody are required to produce this reaction and therefore this mechanism is effective in areas where antibody concentration may be minimal, e.g, at the site of solid tumors. The full significance of this mechanism has not been known.

Antiphospholipid Antibodies – Cause of Autoimmune Disease?

Antiphospholipid antibodies (or APA) are a type of protein produced by white blood cells. Antibodies serve to protect us from foreign particles, such as bacteria and viruses. Sometimes when the immune system is activated and starts producing these antibodies, it may come to an abnormality, causing it to keep producing them even after the infection has been removed. That way, the antibodies will continue to attack the healthy cells in the body, causing damage and triggering other autoimmune disease.

After we look at some basic facts

Antiphospholipid antibodies – types and tests

Antiphospholipid antibodies cause the narrowing of blood vessels and blood clotting (or thrombosis). Antiphospholipid binds to phospholipid (fat derivates, lipids containing phosphorus, composed of fatty acids and a simple molecule). There are a few kinds of antiphospholipid antibodies, which are measured in order to make a diagnosis:

  • Lupus anticoagulant – antibodies against phospholipids that prevent blood clotting. These are measured directly from the plasma, by Russell viper venom time (RVVT) and the Kaolin cephalin clotting test.
  • Anticardiolipin antibody – antibodies often directed against cardiolipin and found in several diseases; measured by a procedure called ELISA.
  • Anti-beta 2 glycoprotein 1 – predictors of arterial thrombosis. This test is used if the first two tests (for lupus anticoagulants or anticardiolipin antibodies) were negative.
  • Sometimes anti-prothrombin and antimitochondrial antibodies are measured as well.

Antiphospholipid antibodies – treatments
High levels of these antibodies are associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS). Usually tests need to be repeated several times before the full diagnosis is given, because sometimes they can show false negative results (especially during the thrombosis). Most people, who test positively on the antiphospholipid antibodies tests, do not require any special treatment.

Antiphospholipid antibodies – who should get treatment?
However, patients who have an IgG anticardiolipin antibody of a moderate to high quantity are considered high risk and should get treatment. IgG anticardiolipin antibody is an important predictor of thrombosis and pregnancy complications. Treatments used, include:

  • Aspirin is most commonly prescribed in low doses to all patients that require treatment and is recommended to be taken during pregnancy.
  • Anticoagulation therapy with Coumadin, for patients with thrombosis.
  • Antimalarials (e.g. hydroxychloroquin), for patients with lupus. They also have antiplatelet effects.
  • Heparin is used before a surgery, biopsy, during pregnancy and six weeks after the childbirth.
  • Corticosteroids are administered from the second trimester during pregnancy, in moderate doses.

Antiphospholipid antibodies can be found even in healthy people; and it is not completely known why these antibodies are produced in most cases. Sometimes they may be triggered by an infection of certain drugs. Presence of antiphospholipid antibodies in the blood does not mean a person is going to develop an illness, provided a healthy life style.

The presence of these proteins is now pinpointed as one of the main potential factors in many autoimmune conditions, but as we mentioned some news in the field are offering hope to people crippled by autiimmunity. I am talking about a holistic protocll known as the Norton protocol.

Learn more by visiting the home page of Norton protocol as well as get a more detailed information about antiphospholipid antibodies.