TNF Alpha Antibody – A Cell Signaling Protein

TNF alpha antibody – The TNF (Tumor Necrosis Factor) Alpha is a multifunctional pro-inflammatory adipokine, a cell signaling protein secreted by adipose tissue, involved in systemic inflammation and stimulation of the acute phase reaction. It is is a potent lymphoid factor that exerts cytotoxic effects on a wide range of tumor cells and certain other target cells.This protein is primarily produced as a type two transmembrane protein arranged in stable homotrimers. This membrane bound form of the protein is then proteolytically cleaved into the secreted form of TNF alpha, both the secreted and membrane bound protein are biologically active. The adipokine can bind two TNF receptors. The first receptor is expressed in most tissues and can interact and be activated by both forms of the TNF protein. While, in contrast, the second TNF receptor is only found in immune cells and respond to the membrane bound form of the TNF protein.

While is can be secreted by many cells types, including CD4+ lymphocytes, natural killer cells and neurons; this adipokine is produced primarily by activated macrophages. TNF alphas primary role is the regulation of immune cells. The adipokine is also an endogenous pyrogen and is able to induce fever both directly and via stimulation of interleukin secretion, apoptotic cell death, cachexia (wasting syndrome), inflammation and tumorigenesis (carcinogenesis) and viral replication inhibition. TNF alpha has been implicated in a variety of illnesses, such as cancer, insulin resistance, and autoimmune diseases.

Tumor Necrosis Factor promotes an inflammatory response to remove harmful stimuli, which include damaged cells, irritants, or pathogens, and then begins the therapeutic process. The inflammatory response is generally in response to a foreign pathogen but in some cases, excessive inflammation may be indicative of an autoimmune disease and other disorders. Some examples of autoimmune diseases are ankylosing spondylitis (chronic inflammatory disease of the axial skeleton), Crohn’s disease (inflammatory bowel disease), psoriasis (lifelong condition that affects the skin), hidradenitis suppurativa (skin diseases) and asthma (known as refractory asthma, if the symptoms persist long-term).

Additionally, TNF alpha can be a gateway to provide a biological therapy to patients as it is a proinflammatory cytokine that has been implicated in many aspects of the airway pathology in asthma, and can potentially be a significant factor in refractory asthma (persistent symptoms). This is completed by inducing either an increase in resistance or a decrease in driving pressure. As a result, TNA alpha antibody can be used as a therapeutic option for patients by increasing the resistance of the autoimmune disease, which will increase airway responsiveness.

The biotechnology industry is the operation of biological processes for scientific reagents and for other scientific functions. Fundamentally, biological reagents are mechanisms that are used in biochemical analysis to assess biological processes. It can be used to produce antibodies that are used to target a particular protein target, which are known as antigens.

The host of the TNF alpha antibody is a rabbit, and it reacts withhuman, mouse and rat. The antibody can be used on the following applications, WB (western blot), and IHC-P (immunohistochemistry).

Peptic Ulcer Helicobacter Pylori – Breath And Antibody Blood Tests

Like the tissue test, the urea breath test makes use of the fact that H. Pylori secretes urease, which converts urea into ammonia, producing carbon dioxide as it does so. You are asked to eat nothing for 12 hours before a breath test and are then given a drink containing urea to which a tiny amount of perfectly safe radiation has been added. Thirty minutes later, a small breath sample is collected. If H. pylori is present in your stomach, the urea is converted into ammonia and carbon dioxide, which is then absorbed and excreted in your breath, along with a tiny amount of radioactivity. This can then be measured With a special machine in the hospital laboratory.

The advantage of the breath test is that it is very straightforward and takes a very short amount of time. Like the biopsy urease test, it is very accurate and confirms that you have active H. pylori infection present at the dine of the test. This also means that, if necessary, the breath test can be performed repeatedly to check whether the bacteria have been eradicated after treatment. The disadvantage of the test, like some other H. pylori tests, is that the result may be inaccurate if you are taking proton pump inhibitor medication. Also the result is not usually available for several days because of the measuring equipment used.

Antibody Blood Test

As with other infections, H. pylori infection trigger the production of specific antibodies in your blood. These can then be looked for with a simple blood test and the presence of these antibodies confirms H. pylori infection. Once your body has produced these antibodies they may persist for many years even after the infection has been eradicated.

For this reason, the blood test is useful for diagnosing infection only in a person who has never had H. pylori treatment, and it cannot be used more than once. The real advantage of the test is that it is very quick and usually available in the GP’s surgery. Unlike the other tests for H. pylori, any drugs that you may be taking do not influence the blood test.

Could Iodine Be Keeping Your Thyroid Antibodies Up?

Many people today are deficient in iodine. Those with thyroid imbalances have likely heard that iodine is a necessary supplement to help with hypothyroid issues and it’s true. Iodine is a necessary supplement to support the thyroid, however, it can also create a bigger problem if taken at the wrong time.

High levels of antibodies on a thyroid test can mean that an autoimmune condition is present. It is crucial to make sure lab results include antibody levels to ensure that the condition is treated appropriately. Most people with hypothyroid actually have an autoimmune form of thyroid disease called Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis. It has become a rare occurrence for people to simply be hypothyroid, but misdiagnosis is common. Too many doctors today do not understand the delicacies of the thyroid and do not order sufficient lab tests. They are unaware of the prevalence of autoimmune thyroid conditions and thus patients end up suffering as they incorrectly treat the body. Thyroid issues are rampant today but unfortunately specialists that truly understand the endocrine system and its interlacing with hormones are uncommon.

Adding iodine when antibody levels are high can be like pouring gasoline on a fire. Not only will the antibody levels increase, but TSH is also likely to stay higher than desired. This also means that symptoms will remain the same or get worse. The key is making sure that antibody levels have decreased to a healthy level before adding iodine supplementation. Once the antibodies have normalized, it is safe to take iodine and can help with many symptoms.

Like most things, timing is crucial. Be sure to work together with a doctor who is well-versed in the thyroid and endocrine system. Most importantly pay attention to symptoms and get labs done every few months to monitor changes.

Another way to help reduce antibody levels is through diet. Starting a gluten free diet is recommended by most holistic practitioners to help reduce inflammation and bring down antibody levels. Gluten (and soy) can trigger an increase in antibodies since the body recognizes the gluten as an “invader” when it enters the blood stream. This causes an inflammatory reaction. Many people see a positive response within a few months of going gluten free. For others it takes longer and may require more attention on healing the gut. Leaky gut is often the root cause of autoimmune diseases but is often times ignored by health practitioners.

Overcome Infertility – Treating Anti-Phospholipid Antibody Syndrome in Conventional Perspective

As we mentioned in previous article, conventional medicine plays an important role and most of the time is the first treatment for a couple who for what ever reason cam not conceive after 1 year of unprotected sexual intercourse or can not carry the pregnancy to full term. Immune system plays an important role in protect our body against forming of free radicals and bacteria and virus, but for what ever reasons, sometime the immune system attack sperm in the women reproductive organs or sperm in the testes in men, leading to infertility In this article, we will discuss how anti-phospholipid antibody syndrome affects fertility in conventional perspective.

1. Definition
Anti phospholipid antibody is lupuslike syndrome and is defined as a condition which causes blood clotting in the arteries or veins including Lupus anticoagulant and anticardiolopin antibody. Some women may have anti phospholipid antibody but does show any symptom of immune antibody disorder.

2. How anti-phospholipid antibody syndrome affects fertility
a) Nutrient deficiency
As the syndrome progress, it causes blood thicken that interferes with function of blood in transportation nutrients to ovaries and uterine lining, making difficult for fertility and causing miscarriage.

b) Placenta
Some researchers believe that anti-phospholipid antibody may causes microscopic blood clot in
the blood vessels in the placenta, leading to miscarriage and poor fetus growth.

c) Recurrent pregnancy loss
Study show that women who have anti-phospholipid antibody syndrome and sufer loss of pregnancy will like to sufer again, if pregnancy does occur.

3. Treatment
a) Heparin
Heparin is a member of anticoagulants, it helps to prevent the formation of blood clots in the blood vessels, thereby increasing the blood in transportation of nutrients to the reproductive organs leading to high chance of fertility and lessening the risk of pregnancy loss. Heparin can be injected through the skin or given into a vein by intravenous infusion.

b) Prednisone
Prednisone is defined as a member of drugs called steroids, it is normally used to prevent the release of substances in the body that cause inflammation. It also has an ability to reduce the function of anticardiolipin antibodies and the lupus anticoagulant, thereby, lessening the risk of blood clot and increasing the chance of fertility.

c) Low of asprin
Sometime low dose of aspirin may be added to prenisone or heparin to increase the function of the medication in preventing blood clot, but aspirin is unlikely to be used alone as a medication in anticoagulation.